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Getting Started with Micro Frontends and Module Federation

While migrating from Oracle or SQL Server or other databases serving legacy Applications, to PostgreSQL, one of the interesting thoughts we witnessed is the Leadership decision for a Technology Stack Upgrade. What this means is that the leadership is planning to transform the entire Application stack built on outdated technology to a modern technology stack, for simplifying development efforts and provide a better Customer experience. Some of such requirements may lead to a Microservices and a Micro-frontend architecture.

At HexaCluster, we not only excel in Database and Application migrations, we are also experts in UI/UX. There were multiple scenarios where our Customers approached us for Oracle or SQL Server to PostgreSQL migrations, and resulted into modernizing their Technology stack involving both Backend as well as Frontend. HexaCluster is proud to be the only PostgreSQL company supporting such transformations involving Database, Backend and Frontend transformations.

Imagine building a complex Web application supporting multiple independent services, where different teams can develop and deploy features independently, all seamlessly integrating into a single user experience. This is where Module Federation comes in, a new concept in frontend development that lets teams create and add their own components independently.

In this blog post, we will explore the concept of micro-frontends, their benefits, Module Federation and types of Module Federation.

What are Micro-Frontends ?

Micro-Frontend is a development approach where a web application’s front end is divided into smaller, self-contained modules. Each module can be developed, tested, and deployed independently, enabling teams to work on specific features or functions within the application.

Instead of making one big website, we break it down into smaller pieces, each responsible for a specific part, like a header, navigation menu, or content section. These smaller pieces, or micro-frontends, can be developed independently by different teams using different technologies. Once ready, they’re assembled together to create the complete website. This approach makes it easier to manage and scale large web projects because each part can be updated or replaced without affecting the rest of the site.

Module Federation and Micro Frontends

According to Micro-Frontends.org:

“The idea behind micro frontends is to think about a website or web app as a composition of features which are owned by independent teams. Each team has a distinct area of business or mission it cares about and specializes in. A team is cross-functional and develops its features end-to-end, from database to user interface”.

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Advantages of Micro-Frontends

  • Decentralized Development and Deployment
    Teams independently develop and release their sections of the app. This makes updates quicker and more frequent.

  • Technology Neutrality
    Each team selects their preferred tools. This allows them to use what works best for them.

  • Scalability
    As the application evolves and expands, new micro-frontends can be added as needed, allowing the application to scale both vertically and horizontally without significant architectural changes.

  • Simplified Updates and Maintenance
    Breaking the app into smaller parts makes it easier to fix problems. It also helps implement changes without disrupting the whole system.

  • Component Reusability
    Teams can reuse parts of the app in different places. This ensures consistency and saves time.

  • Enhanced Testing
    Testing each part of the app separately ensures that everything works before integration.

  • Concurrent Development
    Multiple teams can work on different tasks simultaneously. This speeds up the overall development process.

  • Fault Tolerance
    If one part of the app breaks, the rest can continue to function until the issue is resolved.

Some Popular Frameworks and Isolation Techniques

Let us see some popular frameworks and techniques to develop micro-frontends.

Single SPA

A powerful JavaScript framework designed specifically for building Single Page Applications (SPAs) using micro-frontends, providing the following advantages.

Flexibility: Enables teams to choose different frameworks for individual micro-frontends, promoting technological freedom.

Simplified Integration: Handles complex tasks like routing, lifecycle management, and communication between micro-frontends, streamlining development.

Module Federation

While not strictly a framework, it’s a game-changer for micro-frontends supporting –

  • Efficient Code-Splitting : Breaks down code into smaller, manageable chunks, reducing initial load times and improving performance.

  • Shared Dependencies : Allows micro-frontends to share dependencies and resources, minimizing redundancy and bundle sizes.


Offer complete separation between micro-frontends, ideal for scenarios where micro-frontends come from different domains or require a high degree of isolation due to security concerns.

  • Consideration: iFrames can introduce communication challenges and potential performance drawbacks due to the isolated nature.
Web Components

Provide a standardized approach to building reusable UI components that can be used across different micro-frontends, with benefits as well limitations as follows.

  • Benefits: Lightweight, promote code reusability, and enable a more modular UI development process.

  • Limitation: Communication between web components can be more complex to implement compared to other techniques.

What is Module Federation ?

Module Federation is a method in which code can be split into smaller deployable modules that can be shared and consumed at runtime between applications.

This method allows for the development of Micro Frontends which can reduce coordination between teams and allow for a faster development cycle with each team adhering to its own release cadence.


Module Federation

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What Makes Module Federation a Good Choice?

  • Runtime Code Sharing: Module federation excels at sharing code dynamically at runtime.

    Reduced Bundle Size
    Each micro frontend only downloads the code it needs, minimizing duplication and improving initial load times.

    Automatic Updates
    When a shared module is updated, all dependent micro frontends benefit from the update automatically without requiring individual deployments.

  • Sharing UI Components: Micro frontends can share UI components across the application, promoting code reuse and consistency.

  • Framework Agnostic: Micro frontends can be built using different frameworks (React, Vue, Angular) within the same application, enabling team autonomy and utilizing the best tool for each specific micro frontend.

Types of Module Federation

We have two types of Module Federation.

1. Compile Time Module Federation

  • The decision about which modules to include in the bundle is made during the build process.
  • Bundler analyzes the dependencies between different modules and creates a bundle that includes all the necessary modules.
  • Bundle is fixed at build-time. If you want to change or add anything new, you need to trigger a new build.

2. Run Time Module Federation

  • The decision about which modules to load is made dynamically at runtime, rather than during the build process.
  • They are loaded on-demand as needed during the execution of the program.
  • Performance overhead due to the dynamic loading process.

Choosing Right Bundler for Module Federation

Several bundlers support Module Federation, each with its own strengths and considerations:

1. Webpack

  • Seamless integration with module federation.
  • Extensive community and ecosystem of loaders and plugins.
  • Well-suited for complex build configurations and advanced use cases.
  • Steeper learning curve compared to simpler bundlers.
  • Can involve more configuration overhead.
  • Slow Runtime ,Slow Build Time

2. Parcel

  • Zero-configuration bundler, offering a simpler setup.
  • Supports module federation through an experimental plugin.
  • Limited support for complex build configurations or advanced functionalities.
  • Experimental nature of module federation integration might lead to potential issues.

3. Rollup

  • Designed for creating smaller, highly optimized bundles.
  • Can be integrated with module federation using a third-party plugin.
  • Requires additional configuration and setup for module federation.
  • Rollup’s core focus is not on micro-frontends, so functionalities might be less customized.

4. Vite

  • Ultra-fast build times due to its development server approach.
  • Seamless hot module reloading (HMR).
  • Vite uses esbuild bundler internally, which is written in Go.
  • Potential compatibility issues when working with existing project setups
  • Limited ecosystem

5. Turbopack

  • Ultra-Fast Build Times: Turbopack promises exceptional build speeds, potentially surpassing other bundlers like webpack. This can be beneficial for projects requiring quick development cycles.

  • Focus on Simplicity: Turbopack emphasizes a streamlined build process, possibly reducing configuration complexity.

  • Experimental: Turbopack lacks the stability and extensive features of more established bundlers. Limited production use cases and potential compatibility issues might arise.
  • Still in Beta, Majorly supports for vercel products (NextJs)

6. Rspack

  • Rspack is known for its blazing-fast build times, especially when compared to webpack.

  • Rspack excels at creating smaller, more optimized bundles for your micro-frontends.

  • Limited Ecosystem: Rspack has a smaller ecosystem of plugins and tools compared to well-established bundlers like Webpack. This can restrict your options for addressing specific build or development requirements.


Micro-frontends and module federation are transforming web development. They address the challenges of managing large projects by breaking them into smaller, more manageable parts. This not only speeds up development but also encourages collaboration among team members, who can independently work on different sections.

Furthermore, module federation ensures seamless integration between these micro frontends, maintaining a smooth user experience across the application. Users can navigate between sections without any interruptions, enhancing usability and satisfaction. Looking ahead, as technology progresses, adopting micro frontends and module federation will be essential for remaining competitive in the digital landscape. These practices enable developers to create scalable, flexible, and adaptable web applications that meet changing requirements and user needs.

However, it’s important to know that micro-frontends architecture might not suit every project. Understanding what they’re meant for and using them in the right way is really important.

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  • Uday Kiran

    Uday kiran Bandarugalla is currently working as a UI/UX Developer at HexaCluster. His specialization is in Full Stack development, with a keen focus on the MERN Stack. Alongside, he demonstrates proficiency in mobile development using React Native (Expo). Notably, Uday kiran actively contributes to the open-source community, channeling his dedication towards JavaScript and MERN Stack technologies.

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